W.母鸡砖和迫击炮发布商和书店关闭，今天如过去，未售出的股票有时会在一个肮脏的堆上。知道在1700年之前，在欧洲出版的三分之一的书籍只在一个单一的副本中生存了一件事就是有一件事。面对在人行道上的浇灌书籍是另一件事。如果没有许多图书馆所享有的公共资金或机构支持，这些天书架往往会遇到艰难的时间结束，以及Covid-19流行病只加强了这些压力。Should a bookstore have to close, we lament the disappearance of its social and intellectual ecosystem, even more than the loss of the books themselves.
Especially for antiquarian and other independent booksellers, there exists a tension between sharing knowledge and running a business. Bookstores sell books and book-adjacent items, of course. But they also may serve as editorial offices, publishing houses, classrooms, and lecture halls, not to mention cafés, play spaces, and reading rooms. Sites of collaboration and exchange, bookstores, like libraries, can help hold a community together.
最近的一些工程警告减少了将书店减少到金融底线。Kaouther Adimi的小说Our Riches, translated from the French in 2020 by Chris Andrews, reconstructs a history of the bookstore that French-Algerian intellectual Edmond Charlot founded in Algiers in 1935. In书店：读者的历史，由Peter Bush的2017年由西班牙语翻译，巴塞罗那的评论家评论家JorgeCarrión从他的书店朝圣者编织在世界各地的书店朝圣中，其中轶事从书籍中剔除了关于书籍和阅读的书籍。和D. W. Young的书商是一部关于古代古信书贸易的最诚实的2019年纪录片，遵循收藏家，档案馆，图书馆员和书商，因为他们试图重新发明和多样化他们的工艺，同时销售似乎是一本小型书籍。这三项工作中没有宽大的乐观情绪。他们对书店和书商的深情描绘，而是要求我们考虑我们的失败危险。
Can lessons from the past help guide independent booksellers and their patrons as they navigate a book world in flux? Histories of the early modern book market, when both books and the global economy were new, do not provide a definite blueprint for how to deal with the changing technologies of the book or the effects of online bookselling. They do, however, reveal a pliable sense of what books were in the first place. Literary scholars José María Pérez Fernández and Edward Wilson-Lee’sHernandoColón的书籍世界: Toward a Cartography of Knowledge和历史学家Andrew Pettegree和Arthur der Weduwen's世界书店：荷兰黄金时代的制作和贸易书show that books, and the book world, have never not been in flux.
Book Collection at the Dawn of Print
Compiled in the nearly two-thousand-pageLibro de los epítomes在哥本哈根大学重新发现的稿件Arnamagnæan Institute, in 2019, the book summaries, in particular, made it possible for Colón’s collaborators to spot titles that had little or nothing to do with the works they adorned and to recognize attempts to hawk old publications as new. Early modern book buyers had reason to be wary of unscrupulous publishers and shady booksellers.
W.ealthy booksellers were worthy of particular suspicion. In his will, Colón instructed heirs charged with the conservation and expansion of his collection—which consisted of about 15,000 volumes at the time of his death, in 1539—to avoid merchants who dealt principally in large and expensive books, like those that characterized the disciplines of law and theology. Colón faulted such booksellers with overestimating the comprehensiveness of their stock and remaining uncurious about the inexpensive, small-format works of popular poetry and current events that he coveted.
obrezillas., or “little works,” as Colón called these sorts of pamphlets, with tender regard for their uneven quality and ephemeral nature, could yield scant profits and be difficult to source. Once obtained, and perhaps read, they were more likely to finish their days as wrapping paper at the butcher shop or fruit stall than to be preserved in a library. But Colón insisted that his agents across Europe purchase them for his collection before making any other acquisitions whatsoever.
Edward Wilson-Lee’s first book on Colón,船身书籍目录：年轻的哥伦布和追求通用图书馆，是一种生动的传记，塞进船员 - 充满了书籍购买，而且还有在罗马的加勒比海和令人振奋的郊游中的海上误区。Wilson-Lee和JoséMaríaPérezFernández的新同期书籍，HernandoColón的书籍世界据称，Colón的书籍购买能力和他作为学者的创新能力依靠新的金融工具和簿记系统。在16世纪初，商品实践悄悄进入奖学金领域。To understand Colón in the library or bookshop—where he occasionally bought more than a hundred books at a time—we must first imagine his Genoese associates at the bank, converting their client’s annual royal salary and inherited New World wealth into money readily available in Seville or Venice.
These days, it does not seem reductive to follow the money and the materials to understand methods of interpretation and information management. Ink and paper quality; the availability of type; shipping and storage logistics; financial and copyright law; the mobility of skilled workers; public investment in literacy; the going rate for a pint of beer in relation to the cost of a book—all these elements shape what gets read and, to some significant degree, how. Even without the backache and eyestrain that may accompany present-day book scrolling, it’d be hard to remain insensible to the shifting material conditions of reading and, in turn, to the economics of books.
The Early Modern Book Market Matures
Andrew Pettegree和Arthur der Weduwen的广泛调整工作，世界书店, demonstrates that the economics of books is best understood by thinking about print culture as broadly as possible. Building on Pettegree’s previous research on books in the early Renaissance and on the “invention of news,” this new book examines 17th-century Dutch publishing dynasties like the Elzeviers, in Leiden, and the Blaeu and Janssonius families, in Amsterdam. These family firms produced costly and significant books. Joan Blaeu’sAtlas Maior，伽利略和笛卡尔突出了一系列丰富地说明的地图和Elzeviers的出版物的出版物。荷兰贸易商还在欧洲其他地方的出版商批量购买了书籍，通常以现金支付，然后在国内外的标记上转售它们。他们推测，擅长专业企业家，以读者在一个新教和天主教地区的读者的味道。
与此同时，大型和小企业相似，因为可预测的收入和与较小的印刷工作相关的低风险。高度识字和政治上荷兰人是狂热的读者：报纸，广告，葬礼，论文，政治和婚礼小册子，发布公告等 -obrezillas和文书工作，可以说。在出版商和公证档案馆上绘制，Pettegree和Der Weduwen绘制了这件迷失的印刷品的冰山。
虽然购买和销售盈利书籍始终是书籍的目标，但书店档案馆展示了商业中的其他活动。在充满书籍的房间里实现了不同类型的亲密关系和创造力的线条，基于Paris的作者Kaouther Adimi'sOur Richesfictionalizes the story of Edmond Charlot and Les Vraies Richesses, the bookstore that Charlot founded in Algiers in 1935.
Charlot是一个编辑和出版商以及书店。Albert Camus，AndréGide的作品以及一系列其他突出的作者出现在他狡猾策划的书籍清单中。发明的Charlot-inOur Riches, at least—is bursting with ideas for collaboration, resulting in an “éditions Charlot” book frontispiece painted by René-Jean Clot and an exhibition at the bookstore of Sauveur Galliéro’s sculptures. Adimi depicts Les Vraies Richesses as a ferment.
The bookstore lent books in addition to selling and producing them. In Adimi’s telling, a young man named Riyad is sent from Paris in 2017 by the building’s new owners to clear out the remaining books and prepare the space for a beignet shop. Since the 1990s, when the Algerian government acquired the bookstore from the founder’s sister-in-law, the space had served as a branch of the Algerian National Library—though locals persisted in calling it Les Vraies Richesses. Abdallah, who from 1997 onward had managed the lending library while sleeping on its mezzanine, was known fondly in the neighborhood as “the bookseller.” Evoking the slipperiness of the French wordlibrairie, which now denotes “bookstore” but in centuries past more often meant “library,” Adimi questions whether book lovers must conserve their books and booksellers must sell them.
In 1961, in the midst of the Algerian Revolution, bombs demolished a second bookstore opened by Adimi’s Charlot in 1949, two years after he had sold Les Vraies Richesses to his brother. Charlot bewailed the loss of his archive. Reader reports, correspondence, photographs, manuscripts, and financial documents were all destroyed, along with this second store’s books. Adimi’s work mingles extracts from a notebook written by her fictional Charlot with Riyad’s story, told to “you,” the reader, by a circumspect narrator preoccupied with a new and distinct sort of loss—that of the relationships and habits of the neighborhood around Les Vraies Richesses, along with the store’s books and patrons. The slippage between Adimi’s title,Our Riches, and “the true riches” of Charlot’s original bookstore’s name indicates this widening estimation of collective fortune and deepening anxiety about who ought to possess it. Adimi both restores Charlot’s ruined archive and safeguards the neighborhood’s story using her own technology of recollection and organization: a novel.
Jorge Carrión, literary critic and author of书店，还寻求记录书店并解释为什么他们应该保留，但他的手段与Adimi不同。他建立了书店的拼贴式备忘录，即从一系列名片，收据和旅行期刊阅读，他称之为“我的书店档案”。像Colón一样，Carrión越过边界，因为他在他的分类帐中剔除了书面的参赛作品，旁边的书店，尤其是作者那些学会和国际化文学评论家可能会忽视的作者。
调查他的档案，Carrión得出结论，对于书店生存，它必须突出突出它的商业标志。商店的尺寸和古代制作了Carrión的此类标记列表，但他的心脏是文学史。Think Shakespeare and Company founder Sylvia Beach in conversation with Argentine writer Victoria Ocampo in Paris—or Rachel Muyal, the longtime manager of Tangier’s Librairie des Colonnes, talking politics with the author Mohamed Choukri or trying to track down Paul Bowles, the telephoneless American expat, writer, and translator. These sorts of vignettes, together with descriptions of other secular bookstore spaces and literary chatter, make for entertaining sketches in书店。
Less present are the everyday human connections and sense of place that come with routine and repetition, however provincial. As书店在世界各地飞行，我征修昏昏欲睡，摇滚克萨克斯在我长大的书店，在新英格兰郊区，父母在孩子们养活房产的居民山羊时聚集在一起。
然而，由于难以找到的书籍出售在清算所在地的销售，作为一本难看的书正在发生什么。对于一个人来说，律师少得罕见：一些值得注意的人物的注释或所有权 - 一本书“右卡车碾过”，因为一位商人把它放进来书商—add value. What’s more, the boundaries of the book are now more porous even than they were in the first decades of print. This porousness is manifest in, among other things, the variety of the antiquarian bookseller’s merchandise. The familiar hardback is today but one artifact among a surfeit of manuscript notes, corrected drafts, published zines, audio recordings, video outtakes, fancy gloves, curious writing implements, and all manner of literary historical tchotchkes.
To reimagine the bookstore’s stock is to grow the community of collectors and transform the image of the bookseller. Amplifying the feminist legacies of New York dealers like Leona Rostenberg and Madeleine Stern, for instance, booksellers Heather O’Donnell and Rebecca Romney founded the Honey & Wax Book Collecting Prize for an outstanding book collection by a young woman. Collector and filmmaker Syreeta Gates built an archive of early hip-hop because such an archive did not exist, and she needed one for her activist work. The long-term payoff on these investments will not simply be solvency for antiquarian bookstores. As these sorts of nascent collections multiply and, over time, migrate to libraries, the authoritative histories of much more than the book will look different.
My own first purchase at an antiquarian bookstore was the unabridged second edition of Webster’s新国际英语词典，于1935年发布。除了与股票的其余部分比较，既不旧也不珍稀，字典的定义特征是其巨大厚度。这是一个婚礼礼物，近20年前，对于一些朋友来说，他们可以解决他们的词汇纠纷与那个砰的一声关闭的明确声音。我被告知关于书籍历史并被强加的商品吓倒，我支付和逃离。
我得到了礼物但错过了一个机会arn something. Antiquarian booksellers do not simply buy and sell books or nurture affluent collectors. They model how to think and talk about books as objects. Published introductions to book history are handy—but listen to a bookseller freestyle about bindings, ink color, and, indeed, size and one catches the rhythm before long.
通过任何其他姓名 - 出版商，贷款图书馆，文学沙龙，存档 - 书店必须仍然销售书籍。本书或书籍阅读器无法逃离商业压力。但书店不仅需要销售书籍。它确实如此，除此之外，还有更多。还有什么？如何？肯定是附近的书店有一本关于书店的书或两个书。停止。我建议与书店聊天。
This article was commissioned byBécquer Seguín。