来自卡塞尔的间谍

In Nazi Europe, countless books were banned. So those who saved books—whether university archivists or Jewish scholars—became smugglers.

IN 1942,Adele Kibre博士 - 深色头发,邪恶的眼睛,一名中世纪的训练开始作为收购外国出版物的间歇委员会的海外代理商。该委员会是战略服务办公室(OSS)的分支:中央情报局的战时前身,该公司试图在欧洲收购盟友可以使用盟友来发展智能和计划隐秘运营的文件。一位学者Kibre现在也是一个间谍。

KIBRE是一家理想的工作。在中世纪语言学(芝加哥大学)在收到博士后(芝加哥大学),她花了几十年跳跃从档案中追回欧洲,通过拍摄罕见的学者返回美国的珍稀文本的照片来赚钱。除了她的相机技能外,Kibre还有一个获取封闭档案的礼物。当Kibre曾经被问及 - 作为Kathy Peiss描述的时候,在一个奇妙的新书中,在第二次世界战争期间,在第二次世界大战期间观看“梵蒂冈的一个异常珍稀的手稿”,一个员工解释了Kibre必须寻求许可来自特定的红衣主教。电影集设计师的女儿,Kibre展示了一张诱人的宣传,概述了他的杰克:“阿德莱基斯·科莱蒙伍德伍德小姐,加利福尼亚州。”红衣主教迅速为她送来,说:“所以你来自好莱坞!来吧,让我们谈谈。“Kibre地看着她的稿件,以仅仅谈论一段时间的价格与Starstruck欧洲关于好莱坞,“西方世界的魅力城市”。

Kibre knew, as any dedicated book hound knows, that archives have walls but people have whims. And she also knew that, if you really want to see a manuscript, there are ways and there are ways.

Kibre is one of many memorable characters who appear in two new books about stealing and destroying knowledge in wartime: Peiss’s信息猎人:When Librarians, Soldiers, and Spies Banded Together in World War II Europeand Richard Ovenden’sBurning the Books: A History of the Deliberate Destruction of Knowledge. As both works show in rich and sometimes horrifying detail (and to paraphrase Robert Darnton), books do not just reflect upon history; books create history.1

在这一点上,Peiss引用了诗人占罪的蛋白。作为第二次世界大战期间国会的图书管理员,麦利招募学者对OSS的分支机构 - 研究和分析,绰号为“主席师” - 他们阅读并遵守了基金发现和拍照的文件的战略分析:“保持这些记录本身就是一种战争,“Musilish解释说。“守护者,无论他们是否希望如此,不能是中立的。”2

书籍不仅仅是反思历史;书籍创造历史。

作为葡萄酒描述的,纳粹政府摧毁了犹太书籍依赖于所谓犹太问题研究所的指导。这种“准学术机构”为自己的权力裁定了自己的“大规模的书籍和希伯来书或其他犹太人语言和关于犹太教的书籍”的命运。3

The documents that filled out the collections of the Institute and its sister organizations—like the Reichsleiter Rosenberg Taskforce, a commission for looting art and texts—came, in part, from the compelled labor of Jewish scholars, who were forced to identify their own cultural treasures in the holdings of libraries and synagogues. In 1941, for example, after the German army captured the Lithuanian city of Vilna—which held “one of Europe’s richest collections of Jewish books”—Dr. Johannes Pohl, a Nazi and book curator who helped to lead the Rosenberg Taskforce, “realised that only Jewish specialists could undertake the task of identifying key materials. He therefore ordered the ghetto to provide him with twelve workers, to sort, pack, and ship materials, and appointed a team of three Jewish intellectuals to oversee the work: Herman Kruk, Zelig Kalmanovitch and Chaikl Lunski. The Jewish guards of the ghetto called the group the ‘Paper Brigade.’”4

The Paper Brigade resisted their task using every stratagem they could. They knew that selecting a small group of texts for preservation meant consigning the other texts to destruction. (“The Jewish porters occupied with the task are literally in tears,” Herman Kruk wrote at the time; “it is heartbreaking to see this happening.” Later, referring to the city’s YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, he wrote, “YIVO is dying; its mass grave is the paper mill.”5)他们尽可能减缓他们的工作,因为他们可以看到他们的德国监事时进一步放缓。他们走私书回家,占用贫民窟,隐藏在衬衫和裤子下方的散装。到1943年秋季,奥维登写道,“成千上万的印刷书籍和成千上万的手稿文件,通过令人惊讶,有风险和危险的纸张旅游掠夺,凭借令人惊讶,有危险和危险的纸张旅游来回到维尔纳贫民窟。”

诗人Abraham Sutzkever是纸张旅的一个走私者之一,获得了携带家用废纸的许可证来点燃贫民窟的烤箱。他真正带回家的是珍惜:信件,日记,图纸,书籍。A poem he wrote in 1943, “Kerndlekh Veyts” (Grains of Wheat), imagines a day when these texts’ intended readers would be able to read them in the open: “And I dig and plant manuscripts / … Perhaps these words will endure, / And live to see the light.”6

Ultimately, most of the workers for the Paper Brigade were murdered. Even so, you can visit many of the documents that Sutzkever and others saved in archives in New York City.

Browse

读我的间谍

By Katherine Voyles

在同一年里,Maria Josepha Meyer--在巴黎的出版商Hachette曾在巴黎的战争前工作的美国人代表占领法国占领。迈耶的工作是收集敏感的文本,特别是在占领书中的不断更新的书籍上的地下文学和标题,在占领德国部队可以抓住他们之前。她在书店发出了袭击的报道,以archibald manleish发送给罗斯福总统。

与此同时,阿黛尔Kibre document-gathering operation in Stockholm that was so effective that it drove her superiors a little crazy. Nobody could figure out her methods. She sent to Frederick Kilgour, her superior in London, photographs of underground newspapers, of technical manuals, of government statistics, of air raids in Estonia and sabotage by the Resistance in Denmark. She sent photographs ofIndustrie-Compass 1943是纳粹锁定的德国制造目录,因为它持续了“对敌人的价值信息,因此感兴趣。”

Kilgour begged Kibre to reveal how her operation found these items: “Do they indulge in any underground work or is everything obtained through ordinary bookstore channels? I wish that sometime you would write me a very garrulous letter describing the set-up in Stockholm and the people with whom you work.” Kibre never answered.

随着Peiss的表明,当在图书馆收集和收购的背景下考虑时,Kibre的方法很可能是可能的。是的,谣言让她有时候偷了进入渔船的占用。但她也让自己成为当地书店的青睐的客户,为当地学者提供了朋友,并获得了包括瑞典皇家理工学院,民事统计局和医学院图书馆的贷方的借贷特权。她订阅了很多报纸。她的每一个来源都可以:例如,她与挪威地铁的良好条款,她自己的笔记表明,她施在纳粹宣传部长,以便采购有价值的文件。

纳粹隐藏了整个图书馆的文学宝藏,就像他们隐藏的绘画和雕像从犹太人身上偷来一样。

Eugene Power—a microfilm expert who had given Kibre’s name to the OSS as a promising recruit—later explained his recommendation. What Power pointed out was that Kibre had been using archive hunting to satisfy a taste for intelligence gathering: “I recalled that she liked to talk about international intrigue and espionage … . She was a real Mata Hari type.”7It was no coincidence that, when war broke out and Mata Hari types were needed, so many were to be found walking around libraries.

After the war, document hunters sought to recover stolen treasures, to gather information that would support the new mission of denazification, and to help future historians make sense of the horrors in Europe. Max Loeb—a US Army private, refugee from Nazi Germany, and former book publisher—won renown as a brilliant interrogator of “prisoners of war knowledgeable about libraries, publishing, and the book trade.”

In his interviews, Loeb learned about hundreds of sites that the US military could target to find useful documents, and about much more besides. The director of Research and Analysis in Europe praised his ability to pile discoveries on discoveries: “From the outset, it became apparent that he was obtaining … information on personalities, relocation of government and party headquarters, and industrial targets far beyond the scope of his immediate interest.”

In the process, Loeb learned the locations of literary treasures—whole libraries’ worth—that the Nazis had hidden, just as they had hidden paintings and statues that they had stolen from Jewish owners, in castles, monasteries, salt mines, and caves. One POW explained that German military engineers had dug a system of tunnels for this purpose near the Mosel River. Another recited the location of a chain of sites that hid stolen valuables; he had helped his father to string telephone wires between them. If you liked纪念碑男士,你会喜欢这本书。8

Peiss’s and Ovenden’s books are at once too much and too little, in a good way.信息猎人, at 291 densely packed pages, covers its subject matter thoroughly; at times, you can almost picture the author tipping boxes of archival notes onto the page.

但没有书籍可以包括一切,所以使用Kibre和她的同事追踪的文件的分析师很少出现为角色。我们还看到了像谢尔曼肯特的瞥见,现代智能分析的父亲 - 他们对情报世界的重要性没有提到,大概是因为缺乏空间。读者希望在JohnLeCarré晚些时候的静脉中有惊悚片,这里不会找到一个。(这并不意味着它无法激发一个人。我请求创造者在那里阅读这些书籍,在第二次世界大战期间写下关于书呆子间谍的戏剧性迷你赛。)

Burning the Books解决了西部的整个博士毁灭的历史。这范围从19世纪九世纪九世的一家伟大图书馆的军事破坏,通过英国攻击在1812年战争期间对今天的档案数据集的数字攻击。这本书在1933年5月在柏林开放了一个篝火,其中一支学生们在一个40,000人的obpope of of of of of offoping of of of of of offerope的学术图书馆中烧了成千上万的书籍;它以警告为止,到这一天,知识的破坏往往用于政治目的:“知识的保护基本上没有关于过去而是未来。”

For Ovenden, the imperative to preserve libraries draws moral force from the memory of oppressors who have tried to obliterate all memory of the oppressed: “Nazi attacks on Jewish and ‘un-German’ literature were a warning sign of their policy of genocide against the People of the Book.”

That framing seems right. So much of the modern discipline of book history—the moral urgency, the desire to recover lost worlds from the documents those worlds left behind, the libraries in the United States and elsewhere that rose to world-class status by acquiring materials confiscated in wartime, the structures of attention and funding within what the historian Arno Mayer and others have called “the military-industrial-academic complex”—derives from the legacy of the Holocaust and the Second World War, as both Peiss and Ovenden note.9(Ovenden describes his encounter with YIVO’s archives of rescued books and manuscripts in New York City—which include documents that the Paper Brigade rescued—as “one of the most extraordinary” experiences of his research.)

Today, as we deal with questions that concern撤回文化珍品的恢复,档案的非殖民化,数字和“混合”档案中的知识的脆弱保存,禁止书票的创建可能包括两本书,这些书籍保留了鼓励最坏的人类和书籍的书籍,本章的教训图书馆奖学金和书籍历史与以往任何相比仍然存在。记录的保持仍然是一种战争。守护者,无论他们是否希望如此,都不能中立。

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  1. Robert Darnton, “What Is the History of Books?”达德鲁斯, vol. 111, no. 3 (1982), p. 81.
  2. On the Research and Analysis branch of the OSS, see, for example, Elyse Graham, “The P Source: How Humanities Scholars Changed Modern Spycraft,”普林斯顿校友周刊(2020年12月)。
  3. The leader of the Institute for the Study of the Jewish Question was a former librarian. Richard Ovenden,Burning the Books: A History of the Deliberate Destruction of Knowledge(Harvard University Press, 2020), pp. 122–23.
  4. 堆积的书​​籍是巨大的;它包括Strashun库中的40,000本书。“犹太书籍的狩猎变得越来越咄咄逼人;在一个点,Vilna大学图书馆的阅览室的地板被撕掉,寻找可能隐藏在那里的犹太书籍。“浪费,Burning the Books,pp.127-28。
  5. YIVO代表Yidisher Visnshaftlekher Institut..
  6. 亚伯拉罕·斯图瓦弗,“小麦五谷”,选择诗歌和散文, translated from the Yiddish by Barbara and Benjamin Harshav (University of California Press, 1991), pp. 157–78. See also Frieda W. Aaron,Bearing the Unbearable: Yiddish and Polish Poetry in the Ghettos and Concentration Camps(SUNY Press, 1990), pp. 66–67.
  7. 同上,43;尤金力量,版本:Eugene B.电力,大学微磁性创始人的动力(University Microfilms, Inc., 1990), p. 138.
  8. Robert M. Edsel,纪念碑男士: Allied Heroes, Nazi Thieves, and the Greatest Treasure Hunt in History(Center Street, 2009);纪念碑男士(2014), directed by George Clooney.
  9. 与Arno Mayer,2018年6月的个人沟通.-分别为我的教授,一名巨人在历史上失去了家庭成员到第二次世界大战的巨头,一旦提到他作为一个孩子们通过他的卧室攀登希特勒的噩梦窗户。他通过解释这一点在第二次世界大战中的书籍历史上的另一个巨人可能是在道德上的动力。过去甚至没有过去。
Featured image:Stack Maintenance(细节)(1948)。照片通过纽约公共图书馆/拆卸