一种新的可以是沉默?

约翰·凯奇的音乐会教我们听到沉默。小说可以这样做?

w ^hen John Cage stepped into an anechoic chamber in the early 1950s, the composer expected to finally find silence; instead, he had to confront the acoustics of his own body. In the theoretically soundless room, at a Harvard lab, Cage did hear two sounds: the higher tone came from the operating of his nervous system, the lower tone from the circulating of his blood.

这个experience—searching for a moment without sound, while failing to account for the sounds that might emerge from within—led Cage to the revelation that any absolute absence of aural stimuli was unattainable. This realization partly inspired4′33″,他在表演坐下在钢琴但从演奏制止,以著名的工作,让一个所谓无声的空间自己说话。在寻找听到沉默,那就是,我们将简单地开始听到新的声音。

使用音乐工具,一个在演奏奏鸣曲般的一套环境声音的三个动作的设置,来揭示完全沉默是不可能的可能罢工的听众作为一个非正统的方法。不过,凯奇的选择是有效的一个:在1952年首演4′33″,只听见大卫·都铎不仅打开和关闭钢琴盖还可以通过该服务,以引起人们对许多人在表面上安静的音乐厅空白得分,两个声音洗牌。小说同样可以调整我们的沉默理解?

通过探索时讲话的能力要么放弃或吊销发生了什么,最近的两个来自拉丁美洲的两端小说考虑这个非常的如何表达沉默的问题。

玛丽亚·索尼娅·克里斯托夫的包括我出去(初版于阿根廷在2014年,现在由凯瑟琳银翻译)跟踪一个年轻女人的沉默故意浸泡,类似于凯奇的访问几乎完美隔音室的旅程。同时,豪尔赫Comensal的突变(初版于墨西哥在2016年和最近被夏洛特惠特尔翻译​​成英文)描绘了一个癌症患者的意外变化静默状态。沉默的那中心人物的经历与第一观众的共鸣惊喜4′33″,并与身体的难以回避的是凯奇在消声室中遇到的。

Just as Cage made concertgoers acutely aware of everyone else in the audience—by muting the music that would usually muffle their presence—Cristoff’s and Comensal’s novels suppress speech in order to sound out how doing so changes relationships. Silence is twinned to forms of solitude in both books, and in each case a character’s silence only becomes meaningful when other characters respond to it. Saying nothing, we understand, is less about withdrawing than finding alternative forms of engagement.

换句话说,沉默在这betway体育提现些小说中允许社会交往和结构回响,而不是消散。(性别,仅举一个实例中,INFORMS无言的影响,如男性和女性主角面对不同的期望和提示不同的反应。)通过听的声音沉默至它的共鸣和那些相同的空间如何影响它的空间—Comensal and Cristoff capture silence’s inescapably social components.

来自拉丁美洲的两端最近的两个小说考虑如何表达沉默的问题。

包括我出去,马拉,谁曾经是一名同声传译员,在各地的外交活动工作世界,决定开展为期一年的实验:代替他人携带跨越语言鸿沟的话,她将尽可能多说话,因为她可以不要。betway体育提现放弃了她以前的生活的国际化电路,她移动到一个小镇的阿根廷省成为在临近城市的博物馆保护。

Although the museum is seemingly undergoing an inevitable decline and dedicated to curating a selective vision of the country’s violent past, it is also the perfect site for Mara’s exploration of the effects of silence. She can concentrate on the self-discipline demanded by her sojourn in soundlessness, since her job requires her to move only a little more than the objects she watches over.

对于玛拉,说尽量少是禁欲主义的运动不是试图弥补失去的时间要少。沉默,她解释说,是在解释,一种职业的唯一不可饶恕的罪过是,高于一切,必须保持对话会。然而,玛拉不寻求孤立的,而是一个不同形式的连接。她还是希望“练保持安静,同时与世界交往的艺术。”当她执行静音社交性,一个广泛使用不置可否的声音,甚至沉默,她不仅打击了一个同事有点片面的友谊,也开始知道当地的送货员。从相识,后者移动时,玛拉的实验中出现的障碍,以帮凶。

An unexpected promotion, which Mara understands as an unwelcome interruption and even an insult, challenges her silence and, thus, her sense of control. Half of her time will now be spent assisting a renowned taxidermist to restore two prized pieces: Gato and Mancha, a pair of embalmed yet rapidly deteriorating Criollo horses that had taken the Swiss-born Aimé Félix Tschiffely on a three-year journey from Buenos Aires to New York in the 1920s.

为博物馆,这些曾经精美马标本自豪的点,因为该品种被理解为原地卓越的越来越罕见例子。无论是动物标本剥制和捐助资金作品(谁也与克隆品种试验)发现动物的腐烂状态是对症的更广泛的国家的趋势,一个他们希望以抵消与马的重建。

The brash taxidermist quickly gets under Mara’s skin, his constant demands making it more difficult than ever for her to keep the vow of silence. Seeking a subtle form of revenge, she resolves to take matters into her own hands and considers how she might sabotage the restoration on the day of its grand unveiling. Determining how to unmistakably implicate the taxidermist without casting any suspicion on herself requires Mara to use a key interpreting skill: listening intently to uncover the crucial kernel of information. And while she does successfully execute this pernicious plot—a silent way of speaking her mind—she ultimately ensnares someone else to ensure her innocence.

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马拉并不陌生,这种风格的托词。当她担任口译员,别人谁,尽管说话的什么也没说时间她已经组装该解释在她翻译的发言中使用修辞策略的机密对话,即使是集成的例子的范围和手动。有一天,在其中一个著名的慈善家原定说话峰会,马拉,而不是坐在她的摊位,大声本手册翻译读了七分钟,前保安员进行干预,扶着她走出了大楼。

使透明什么的幕后操纵者巴洛克式的官僚语言的这种行为是不是在事件远不如戏剧性口译, the 2005 Sydney Pollack film about an assassination attempt at the UN, which is one of the only other works to notably feature this audible yet often invisible role. But Mara, like Nicole Kidman’s character, hopes to point out the hollowness of words wielded by the powerful.

Mara的手册还规定了格言约沉默,她对待像咒语,这是唯一的书,除了19世纪西班牙指南园艺,她和她带来的小省级城市。来自这两个文本,以及从摘录小说呈现短暂引用“笔记本”。的不同于其他部分包括我出去这些通道包含一些第一人称感叹词,因为他们讨论的材料,如传记字典,一个动物标本的网站,甚至是马育种者的小册子。

Cristoff说,这些通道上一些她在写小说进行的研究得出。将它们是,因此,不能保持沉默有关工作的组成方式。然而,因为它们包含在文本,而不放在马拉的故事,很多里面的书自相矛盾的标题所暗示的,他们也阐明保持沉默和传感适当的时候说话之间的紧张关系的新的探索。

无语音实际上可以调合我们新的东西。

突变,沉默是通过与亵渎偏爱一个癞皮狗鹦鹉反驳。这个亚马孙oratriz,濒临灭绝的物种,是贝尼托·华雷斯,一个19世纪的墨西哥总统的名字命名。鸟成为拉蒙·马丁内斯的同伴后舌切除旨在消除终端肿瘤让他无法说话。

而玛拉避开为了演讲来宣称控制,这个曾经合群律师在墨西哥城必须面对它的损失,因为他慢慢地从围绕着他的能力说话代表他人的公众人物务虚会。由于贝尼托有限的词汇,他是少一个解释的多放大器。虽然鹦鹉能够通过咒骂股价爆发捕捉拉蒙的挫折,他是无法传达律师的其他消息。

Comensal的小说描写突然平静的绝望标志着一个生命的结束。没有医疗保险,拉蒙不能维持他的中产阶级的舒适在不断增加的医疗费用面前。从他的兄弟的贷款只能让他更加痛苦窒息。周围的人试图提供一些救济:一个长期的管家,不仅买她的雇主的鹦鹉,也使得做工资下降;拉蒙的妻子在律师事务所接管,以确保至少有一些钱的用武之地。

他的孩子,而另一方面,通过持续的旧习惯应付他们的父亲的癌症。拉蒙的儿子只是简单地想知道他的onanistic过剩在某种程度上与他父亲的痛苦,而他的女儿取决于Twinkies的寄托,她在网上研究医学术语。但是,他们没有检测拉蒙的行为很多变化;他的新失语激起没有新的可变性。

The only figure to pry past Ramón’s facade is a pot-smoking Lacanian psychoanalyst who specializes in treating cancer patients. Unlike Ramón’s family, she has experience with silence and possesses the vocabulary to reflect on its various valences, thanks to sessions with her own analyst. But since the talking cure will not work with Ramón, they chat via computer in her office. There, he confesses that the loss of speech has led to the surprising sensation that he is somehow separate from the body that is failing him, as its cells succumb to cancer.

As his quietus—his death—draws closer, only the peso continues to give Ramón a sense of power. Looking at a handful of bills, he thinks that with them he “would be able to speak again; with them, he would grandiloquently dictate his final wish.” To procure the money, Ramón had the housekeeper pawn off his gold watch. With some of the funds, he purchases a larger cage for Benito.

总之,他和鹦鹉从事交流期间,拉蒙的无语所引发无谓的讲话从贝尼托和鸟的上下摆动头部信号热情与患者的清音的想法一致。虽然没有一个真正传达什么其他的,它们共享间歇的沉默是突出以什么新的学习模仿者和什么也没有一名律师可说的好奇相似之处。

在一部分鸟笼,1972年的作品,由12个预录磁带,演奏者可以决定怎么打,约翰·凯奇进行与鹦鹉圆形的交谈。在这次谈话,双方鹦鹉和人反复询问对方的名字。虽然鸟适当做回应在一个实例(说“哈维”),后来询问凯奇的名字,一个问题,凯奇已经回答了。贝尼托一样,哈维说,但真的不能说多说什么,一块是内创造一些像喜剧4′33″,明确有志于形式的问题。

For Comensal, silence is ultimately a secondary feature, used to craft comedic moments (like those Cage introduces with his parrot) within conventional structures. But for Cristoff, silence is a central subject, one that her novel engages with not just thematically but formally. Like Cage, she answers the call of silence by recognizing that the absence of speech can actually attune us to something new.

这篇文章是由委托Bécquer Seguín.图标

特色图片:Cuarentena#4,墨西哥城(2020)。照片由大卫·鲍伊米x / Flickr